Indian Art History
Ancient Indian culture developed rapidly around 3000 BC in the fertile valley of the Indus river – Pakistan. From some of the findings of historians, it has shown a form of high-quality and highly developed culture. But it still does not provide a complete description of its heritage, because there are still not many relationships that relate that finding.
The inheritance includes:
a. The art of building, for example, the ruins of buildings found in two old cities (Mahenjo – Daro, and Harappa) using bricks, placing buildings with a central system and existing multi-story buildings
b. Sculpture, with naturalists and stations made of metal and wood
c. The art of relief, in the form of a stamp of pictograph from a clay plate that was given a picture of an animal (an ox or lion rhinoceros) and writing that until now still cannot be read
Then since the emergence of Hindu-Buddhist teachings, a special patterned culture developed. His art form refers to the style of symbolism (symbolism) based on an art book called “Silva Sastra”
The relics are;
a. Indian Art of India
– Stamba (Tugu Asoka) serves as a medium for disseminating Buddhist teachings
– Stupa (caitya) serves as a symbol of Buddhist teachings
– Buddhist Temple (Chaitya Griha) is a building where Buddhist monks meditate
b. Indian Sculpture
When the Buddhist community is still Ai-Iconis (not recognizing sculpture as a medium of worship), Buddhism is only manifested in symbolic forms, such as the Buddhist Throne, Buddhist Chakra or Buddhist Footprints. Then after India got the influence of Greco-Roman art, the Buddha was manifested in the form of a human statue with features still showing the style of Greek sculpture (Dewi Apolo). Characteristics are realist style, oval face, wavy hair, and dangling legs. In subsequent developments Indian sculpture shows its distinctive features, which are Indian faces, sitting cross-legged with certain hand gestures containing atri (Mujra)
c. Indian Painting and Relief Art
The remains of Indian relief art are found on the walls inside the monasteries using the fresco technique of painting which is done when the walls are still wet while the relief art is found on many Hindu temple walls.